Melt Blowing

Melt Blowing PDF
Author: Leonid Semenovich Pinchuk
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783540432234
Size: 32.19 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
Category : Technology & Engineering
Languages : en
Pages : 212
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This book is devoted to a nontraditional class of materials which are manufactured by the melt-blowing process - i.e. by extrusion of polymer melt followed by fiber stretching with a gas stream. For the first time extensive data on classical and modern modifications of this technology are generalized and a review is given of extrusion head dies and subsidiary equipment. The text examines the structure and main properties of melt-blown materials as conditioned by peculiarities of overheated polymer melt spraying in an oxidizing medium. Information is given about filtering mechanisms and the main types of polymer fibrous filtering materials: electret, magnetic, adsorptional, bactericidic, and about carriers of microorganisms in biofilters. Social and ecological aspects of the application of melt-blown materials are analyzed.

Melt Crystallization Technology

Melt Crystallization Technology PDF
Author: Tine Arkenbout-de Vroome
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781566761819
Size: 79.55 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Category : Technology & Engineering
Languages : en
Pages : 383
View: 6277

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From the Author's Preface There is a growing demand for ultrapure organic compounds such as fine chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and basic materials for use in the polymer industry. . . . In quite a number of cases, it is difficult or impossible to manufacture ultrapure organics efficiently using conventional separation techniques such as distillation. Moreover, conventional techniques usually require large amounts of energy. To improve the purification efficiency of organics, special techniques based on crystallization from the melt have been developed. Melt crystallization meets industry's need for a highly selective separation process for organic compounds which operates at low enough temperatures to prevent thermal degradation. Melt crystallization processes have the added advantage that they are energy-efficient and ecologically sound. Melt crystallization techniques appear to be particularly promising for upgrading organic materials and are one of the few routes that appear to be feasible for purifying starter materials for high-tech polymers. The aim of this book is to provide basic information on melt crystallization technology. . . . This monograph consists of three parts: 1. basic principles, 2. process options, and 3. technical equipment and applicability. This new book is the first unified guide and reference to an important chemical process technology. It is comprehensive and organized for easy reference. More than 150 diagrammatic representations, flow charts and photographs illustrate equipment and processes. More than 40 tables provide useful reference data. The Author Dr. Arkenbout studied chemistry at the University of Utrecht, and joined TNO, the Netherlands Organization for Applied Scientific Research. He has specialized in research on new separation processes and has had thirty of his articles on this subject published. He recently retired from the position of manager of physical separation research, but has remained active in this field through affiliations with the Laboratory of Solid State Chemistry at the University of Nijmegen, the Laboratory for Process Equipment, Delft University of Technology, and TNO.

Melt Inclusions In Volcanic Systems

Melt Inclusions in Volcanic Systems PDF
Author: B. De Vivo
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080536101
Size: 80.67 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 274
View: 5613

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Melt inclusions provide a unique record of the physical and chemical processes operating in active magma chambers associated with volcanic systems. This book includes a summary of modern techniques used to study and interpret melt inclusions in volcanic rocks, as well as descriptive studies of specific volcanoes. These various studies document the enormous potential for melt inclusions to provide a window into the dynamics of active magma chambers. 'Melt Inclusions in Volcanic Systems' gives the most up-to-date summary of research on the application of melt inclusions in studies of active and fossil volcanic systems, as well as suggestions for future research in this area.

Melt Rheology And Its Role In Plastics Processing

Melt Rheology and Its Role in Plastics Processing PDF
Author: John M Dealy
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780412739101
Size: 47.49 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
Category : Technology & Engineering
Languages : en
Pages : 680
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This book is designed to fulfill a dual role. On the one hand it provides a description of the rheological behavior of molten poly mers. On the other, it presents the role of rheology in melt processing operations. The account of rheology emphasises the underlying principles and presents results, but not detailed deriva tions of equations. The processing operations are described qualita tively, and wherever possible the role of rheology is discussed quantitatively. Little emphasis is given to non-rheological aspects of processes, for example, the design of machinery. The audience for which the book is intended is also dual in nature. It includes scientists and engineers whose work in the plastics industry requires some knowledge of aspects of rheology. Examples are the polymer synthetic chemist who is concerned with how a change in molecular weight will affect the melt viscosity and the extrusion engineer who needs to know the effects of a change in molecular weight distribution that might result from thermal degra dation. The audience also includes post-graduate students in polymer science and engineering who wish to acquire a more extensive background in rheology and perhaps become specialists in this area. Especially for the latter audience, references are given to more detailed accounts of specialized topics, such as constitutive relations and process simulations. Thus, the book could serve as a textbook for a graduate level course in polymer rheology, and it has been used for this purpose.

Crystallization Modalities In Polymer Melt Processing

Crystallization Modalities in Polymer Melt Processing PDF
Author: Hermann Janeschitz-Kriegl
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783211876275
Size: 31.49 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
Category : Technology & Engineering
Languages : en
Pages : 221
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Structure formation in crystallizing polymers, as occurring during processing, has not been treated so far in a coherent form. This fact explains, why this monograph is written as the ?rst book devoted to this subject. A quarter of a century ago the underdevelopment of this subject was obvious. Trial and error dominated. In fact, other apposite subjects as polymer melt rheology or heat transfer, had reached high levels. A great number of books has been devoted to them. Mold ?lling of amorphous polymers and the solidi?cation of these polymers by vitri?cation can nowadays be simulated numerically with a high degree of accuracy. In the solidi?ed sample even residual stresses and corresponding birefringence effects can accurately be 1 calculated . However, semicrystalline polymers, which form the majority of industrial po- mers, have been excluded from these considerations for good reasons. In fact, great uncertainties existed about the formation of quality determining crystalline str- tures. In particular, polyole?ns suffered from this shortcoming. In 1983 this fact instigated the polymer research group at the Johannes Kepler University in Linz to start with pertinent activities. The urgency of this kind of studies becomes evident, if advantages and hitches of these polymers are considered. 1. Versatility of processing: Injection molding into a great variety of shapes and sizes, from thin walled beakers to garden chairs, not to forget pipe and pro?le extrusion, cable coating, ?ber spinning, ?lm blowing. 2. Product qualities: Ductility, low density, good electric insulation, corrosion resistance, surface quality.

Fiber Crystal Growth From The Melt

Fiber Crystal Growth from the Melt PDF
Author: Tsuguo Fukuda
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783540405962
Size: 36.24 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 281
View: 468

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Fiber Crystal Growth from the Melt reviews the growth, modelling, characterization and application of single crystal fibers. Due to their very large length-to-diameter ratio together with perfect crystallographic structure and chemical homogeneity, such fibers have mechanical and physical properties that approach the theoretical values. Fukuda explains how their ultra-high strength enables their application as reinforcing agents in structural components. And he elucidates how and why fiber crystals are particularly well suited for wave guiding, tunable narrow-band filters and nonlinear optics and for the generation of green, blue and violet wavelenghts, and also as micro lasers and laser modulators.

Polymer Melt Fracture

Polymer Melt Fracture PDF
Author: Rudy Koopmans
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1420018280
Size: 76.48 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
Category : Technology & Engineering
Languages : en
Pages : 341
View: 405

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The continually growing plastics market consists of more than 250 million tons of product annually, making the recurring problem of polymer melt fracture an acute issue in the extrusion of these materials. Presenting a pictorial library of the different forms of melt fracture and real industrial extrusion melt fracture phenomena, Polymer Melt Fracture provides pragmatic identification and industrial extrusion defect remediation strategies based on detailed experimental and theoretical findings from the last 50 years. Distinct microscopic photos Each chapter in this comprehensive volume covers a different aspect of the science and technology relating to polymer melt fracture. The book begins with a collection of optical and scanning electron microscopy pictures. These photos show distorted capillary die extrudates for a number of commercially available polymers. The authors present a brief introduction to the basic science and technology of polymers. They explain what polymers are, how they are made, and how they can be characterized. They also discuss polymer rheology, review the principles of continuum mechanics, and define linear viscoelastic material functions. Techniques for observing and measuring fracture Next, the book explains how polymer melt fracture is actually experienced in the polymer processing industry. It explains the various ways polymer melt fracture may appear during polymer melt processing in different extrusion processes. The authors provide comprehensive reviews of the polymer melt fracture literature, with chapters on experimental findings and the techniques used to observe and measure polymer melt fracture, and the influence of polymer architecture and polymer processing conditions on the onset and types of polymer melt fracture. Posing a hypothesis about the phenomenon, the book presents the current understanding of polymer melt fracture. Mathematical equations Recognizing the importance of models for simulations that may indicate potential solutions, the book discusses aspects of non-linear constitutive equations and microscopic theory and develops a macroscopic model, explaining the capabilities and limitations of this approach. The book presents an overview of pragmatic tools and methods that have been used to prevent the appearance of polymer melt fracture and explains how to use them to suppress defects.

Melt Extrusion

Melt Extrusion PDF
Author: Michael A. Repka
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461484324
Size: 28.17 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
Category : Medical
Languages : en
Pages : 474
View: 4451

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This volume provides readers with the basic principles and fundamentals of extrusion technology and a detailed description of the practical applications of a variety of extrusion processes, including various pharma grade extruders. In addition, the downstream production of films, pellets and tablets, for example, for oral and other delivery routes, are presented and discussed utilizing melt extrusion. This book is the first of its kind that discusses extensively the well-developed science of extrusion technology as applied to pharmaceutical drug product development and manufacturing. By covering a wide range of relevant topics, the text brings together all technical information necessary to develop and market pharmaceutical dosage forms that meet current quality and regulatory requirements. As extrusion technology continues to be refined further, usage of extruder systems and the array of applications will continue to expand, but the core technologies will remain the same.

Melt

Melt PDF
Author: Natalie Anderson
Publisher: Entangled: Indulgence
ISBN: 1622669150
Size: 44.13 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
Category : Fiction
Languages : en
Pages : 97
View: 4655

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In Melt by Natalie Anderson two frozen hearts collide... Emma Reed closed her heart to love years ago after a lifetime spent getting kicked around foster homes and bad relationships. Now she's on a mission to prove she deserves her recent award to paint a mural for a research base in Antarctica. Nothing and no one is going to get in her way. After months working in recovery zones around the world, Hunter Wilson planned to escape everything this holiday season by rebuilding a lab at the Kiwi Research Base. Alone. No to family, no to fun. It's isolation not intimacy he's aching for. But when he sees the determined artist, that ache becomes an urge - after all, shouldn't someone show her what two people can do with twenty-four hours of brilliant sunlight? In the coldest place on earth, even the most frozen hearts can melt.

Detection Of Melt Ponds On Arctic Sea Ice With Optical Satellite Data

Detection of Melt Ponds on Arctic Sea Ice with Optical Satellite Data PDF
Author: Anja Rösel
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642370330
Size: 19.28 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
Category : Law
Languages : en
Pages : 106
View: 4194

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The Arctic sea ice is characterized by profound changes caused by surface melting processes and the formation of melt ponds in summer. Melt ponds contribute to the ice-albedo feedback as they reduce the surface albedo of sea ice, and hence accelerate the decay of Arctic sea ice. To quantify the melting of the entire Arctic sea ice, satellite based observations are necessary. Due to different spectral properties of snow, ice, and water, theoretically, multi-spectral optical sensors are necessary for the analysis of these distinct surface types. This study demonstrates the potential of optical sensors to detect melt ponds on Arctic sea ice. For the first time, an Arctic-wide, multi-annual melt pond data set for the years 2000-2011 has been created and analyzed.